Research Interests: Efficiency & Productivity Analysis
1963: Bachelor of Arts, College of William and Mary
1966: Ph.D., Duke University
1969: Postdoctoral Fellowship in Political Economy, University of Chicago
1965-1966: Visiting Instructor - North Carolina Central University, USA
1966-1968 Assistant Professor - State University of New York at Binghamton, USA
1968-1971 Assistant Professor - University of North Carolina, USA
1971: Visiting Associate Professor - Economics Institute, University of Colorado, USA
1971-1977: Associate Professor - University of North Carolina, USA
1975-1976: Visiting Associate Professor - University of British Columbia, Canada
1977-1993: Professor - University of North Carolina, USA
1983-1984: Visiting Professor - University of Pennsylvania, USA
1989: Visiting Professor - University of Adelaide, SA, Australia
1990-1994: Visitor - CORE, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
1994-2006: C. Herman and Mary Virginia Terry Professor - Department of Economics, Terry
College of Business, University of Georgia, USA
1995: Visiting Professor - Odense University, Denmark
1999-2000: Professor and Director - Centre for Applied Economic Research, School of
Economics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
2001- Present: Visiting Academic -Productivity Commission, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
2003- 2005: Adjunct Professor - University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
“The Measurement of Efficiency of Production” (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf). Boston: KluwerNijhoff. Publishing, 1985.
“International Applications of Productivity and Efficiency Analysis” (edited with T.R. Gulledge). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
“The Measurement of Productive Efficiency: Techniques and Applications” (edited with H. O. Fried and S. S. Schmidt). New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
“Production Frontiers” (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
“Economic Efficiency and Productivity Growth in the Asia Pacific Region” (edited with T.-T. Fu and C. J. Huang). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 1999.
“Stochastic Frontier Analysis” (with S. C. Kumbhakar). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000,
paperback edition 2003, Chinese translation 2007.
“Productivity and Economic Performance in the Asia-Pacific Region” (edited with T.-T. Fu and C. J.
Huang). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2002.
“Public Goods, Environmental Externalities and Fiscal Competition” (edited with P. Chander, J.
Drèze and J. Mintz). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2006.
“The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Growth” (edited with H. O. Fried and S.
S. Schmidt). New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
“Productivity Accounting: The Economics of Business Performance” (with E. Grifell-Tatjé). New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Capital, Profit and Bonus in Soviet Industry: A Comment," Economica 33:130 (February 1966), 88-91.
Profits and Cybernetics as Sources of Increased Efficiency in Soviet Planning," Southern Economic
Journal 34:3 (January 1968), 392-405.
Capacity Utilization and Production Function Estimation in Postwar American Manufacturing,"
Quarterly Journal of Economics 82:2 (May 1968), 219-39.
The Role of Private Subsidiary Farming During the Soviet Seven-Year Plan, 1959-65," Soviet
Studies 10:1 (July 1968) 46-66.
Estimating the Elasticity of Substitution: A Correction and Some Further Results" (with J. Moroney),Southern Economic Journal 39:3, (January 1973), 437-41.
CES and VES Production Functions in a Cross-Section Context," Journal of Political Economy 81:3
(May/June 1973), 705-20.
Technology and Specification Error," Southern Economic Journal 40:1 (July 1973), 110-16.
A Note on Aggregation Bias and Loss," Journal of Econometrics 1:3 (October 1973), 301-11.
Estimation and Prediction with CES and VES Production Functions," International Economic Review 14:3 (October 1973), 676-92.
Homotheticity and the Average Cost Function," Western Economic Journal 11:4 (December 1973), 506-13.
Specification Error in Generalized Production Function Models" (with D. Guilkey), International
Economic Review 16:1 (February 1975), 161-70.
Extended Hicks Neutral Technical Change" (with C. Blackorby and M. Thursby), Economic Journal
86:4 (December 1976), 845-52.
Formulation and Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Function Models" (with D. Aigner and P. Schmidt), Journal of Econometrics 6:1 (July 1977), 21-37.
The Impact of Adjusted Factor Cost Valuation on the CES Interpretation of Soviet Economic
Growth" (with S. Rosefielde), Economica 44:176 (November 1977), 381-92.
A Two Stage Model of Discriminatory Pricing," Canadian Journal of Economics 11:1 (February
An Investigation of the Kmenta Approximation to the CES Function" (with J. Thursby), International Economic Review 19:2 (June 1978), 363-77.
Measuring the Technical Efficiency of Production" (with R. Färe), Journal of Economic Theory 19:1
(October 1978), 150-162.
Estimating Technical and Allocative Inefficiency Relative to Stochastic Production and Cost
Frontiers" (with P. Schmidt), Journal of Econometrics 9:3 (February 1979), 343-66.
On the Flexibility of the Translog Approximation" (with D. Guilkey), International Economic Review 21:1 (February 1980), 127-47.
A Survey of Frontier Production Functions and of Their Relationship to Efficiency Measurement"
(with F. Førsund and P. Schmidt), Journal of Econometrics 13:1 (May 1980), 5-26. [Translated as
Una rassegna sulla frontiere di produzione e il loro legame con la misurazione dell'efficienza,"
Problemi de Amministrazione Pubblica Vol. 10, 1985, 267-302.]
Estimating Stochastic Production and Cost Frontiers when Technical and Allocative Inefficiency are Correlated" (with P. Schmidt), Journal of Econometrics 13:1 (May 1980), 83-100.
Price Discrimination in Related Markets" (with K. Wertz), Economic Inquiry 19:3 (July 1981), 488-94.
Normative and Stochastic Methods of Measurement and Control of the Efficiency of Firms and
Enterprises" (with S. Danilin, I. Materov and S. Rosefielde), Ekonomike i Matematicheskie Metody
18:1 (January 1982), 86-93.
On the Estimation of Technical Inefficiency in the Stochastic Frontier Production Model" (with J.
Jondrow, I. Materov and P. Schmidt), Journal of Econometrics 19:2/3 (August 1982), 233-38.
Testing Efficiency Hypotheses in Joint Production: A Parametric Approach" (with R. Sickles),
Review of Economics and Statistics 65:1 (February 1983), 51-58.
The Structure of Technical Efficiency" (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf), Scandinavian Journal of
Economics 85:2 (1983), 181-90. [Reprinted in F.R. Førsund, ed., Topics in Production Theory. London: Macmillan, 1984.]
A Comparison of the Performance of Three Flexible Functional Forms" (with D. Guilkey and R.
Sickles), International Economic Review 24:3 (October 1983), 591-616.
Affinely Homothetic Production Technology" (with R. Färe), Methods of Operations Research 48
Measuring Enterprise Efficiency in the Soviet Union: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis" (with S. Danilin, Materov and S. Rosefielde), Economica 52:206 (May 1985), 225-34.
Modeling Scale Economies with Ray-Homothetic Production Functions" (with R. Färe and L.
Jansson), Review of Economics and Statistics 67:4 (November 1985), 624-29.
Scale Economies and Duality" (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf), Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie
46:2 (1986), 175-82.
Nonparametric Disposability Tests" (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf), Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 47:1 (1987), 77-85.
The Effect of Unionization on Labor Productivity: Some Additional Evidence" (with R. Sickles and R.Warren), Journal of Labor Research 9:1 (Winter 1988), 55-63.
The Effect of Unions on Productivity: U. S. Surface Mining of Coal" (with P. Byrnes, R. Färe and S.
Grosskopf), Management Science 34:9 (September 1988), 1037-53.
Scale Elasticity and Scale Efficiency" (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf), Journal of Institutional and
Theoretical Economics 144:4 (September 1988), 721-29.
An Indirect Efficiency Approach to the Evaluation of Producer Performance" (with R. Färe and S.
Grosskopf), Journal of Public Economics 37:1 (October 1988), 71-89.
Multilateral Productivity Comparisons When Some Outputs are Undesirable: A Nonparametric
Approach" (with R. Färe, S. Grosskopf and C. Pasurka), Review of Economics and Statistics 71:1 (February 1989), 90-98.
Some Economics of Content Protection" (with R. Färe and J. Logan), Journal of Economics 50:2
Measuring Cost Efficiency in Banking: Econometric and Linear Programming Evidence" (with G.
Ferrier), Journal of Econometrics 46:1/2 (October/November 1990), 229-45.
The Allocation of Consumer Incentives to Meet Simultaneous Sales Quotas: An Application to U.S. Army Recruiting" (with R. C. Morey), Management Science 37:3 (March 1991), 350-67.
Cost-Efficient Military Recruiting: An Econometric Approach" (with R. Morey and L.L. Wood),
Defence Economics 2 (1991), 339-51. [Reprinted in K. Hartley and T. Sandler, eds., The Economics
of Defense. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. (2000).]
Indirect Productivity Measurement" (with R. Färe and S. Grosskopf), Journal of Productivity Analysis 2:4 (February 1992), 283-98.
The CET-CES-Generalized Leontief Variable Profit Function: An Application to Indian Agriculture"
(with J. Behrman, R. Pollak and R. Sickles), Oxford Economic Papers 44:2 (April 1992), 341-54.
Variation in Productive Efficiency in French Workers' Cooperatives" (with J. Defourny and A.G.M.
N'Gbo), Journal of Productivity Analysis 3:1/2 (June 1992), 103-117.
Evaluating the Performance of U.S. Credit Unions" (with H. Fried and P. Vanden Eeckaut), Journal
of Banking and Finance 17:2/3 (April 1993), 251-65.
Productive Efficiency Under Capitalism and State Socialism: The Chance Constrained
Programming Approach" (with K. Land and S. Thore), Public Finance/Finances Publiques 47:5 (1993), 109-21.
Derivation of Shadow Prices for Undesirable Outputs: A Distance Function Approach" (with R.
Färe, S. Grosskopf and S. Yaisawarng), Review of Economics and Statistics 75:2 (May 1993), 374-80.
Trade and Efficiency Effects of Domestic Content Protection" (with J. Beghin), Review of Economics and Statistics 75:4 (November 1993), 623-31.
Chance-Constrained Data Envelopment Analysis" (with K. Land and S. Thore), Managerial and
Decision Economics 14:6 (November/December 1993), 541-54.
Incorporating Undesirable Outputs into Models of Production: An Application to U.S. Agriculture"
(with E. Ball, R. Nehring and A. Somwaru), Cahiers d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales 31:2 (1994), 60-74.
Enhancing the Performance of Credit Unions: The Evolution of a Methodology" (with H. O. Fried),
Recherches Economiques de Louvain 60:4 (1994), 1-17.
Economias de Escala y Cambios en la Productividad: El Caso de Las Casas de Ahorros
Espãnolas" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Perspectivas del Sistema Financiero 48 (1994), 123-31.
Linear Programming Approaches to the Measurement and Analysis of Productive Efficiency," Top
2:2 (December 1994), 1-50.
Econometric Efficiency Analysis: A Policy-Oriented Review," European Journal of Operational
Research 80:3 (February 1995), 452-61.
“A Note on the Malmquist Productivity Index" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Economics Letters 47:2
(February 1995), 169-75.
Units Invariant and Translation Invariant DEA Models" (with J. T. Pastor), Operations Research
Letters 18:3 (1995), 147-51.
Measuring Macroeconomic Performance in the OECD: A Comparison of European and
NonEuropean Countries" (with J. T. Pastor and J. A. Turner), European Journal of Operational Research
87:3 (1995), 507-18.
Estrategias de Gestión y Cambio Productivo en el Sector Bancario Español" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé),
Papeles de Economia Española 65 (1995), 174-84.
Deregulation and Productivity Decline: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé),
European Economic Review 40:6 (June 1996), 1281-1303. [Reprinted in M. J. B. Hall, ed., The
Regulation and Supervision of Banks, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. (2000).]
Applying Efficiency Measurement Techniques to the Measurement of Productivity Change,"
Journal of Productivity Analysis 7:2/3 (July 1996), 329-40.
Biased Technical Change and the Malmquist Productivity Index" (with R Färe, E. Grifell-Tatjé and
S.Grosskopf), Scandinavian Journal of Economics 99:1 (1997), 119-27.
“The Relative Efficiencies of Market and Planned Economies” (with J. R. Moroney), Southern
Economic Journal 63:4 (April 1997), 1084-93.
Target Setting: An Application to a Bank Branch Network" (with J. T. Pastor), European Journal of
Operational Research 98:2 (April 16, 1997), 290-99.
The Impact of Liberalization on the Productive Efficiency of Indian Commercial Banks" (with A.
Bhattacharyya and P. Sahay), European Journal of Operational Research 98:2 (April 16, 1997), 332-
The Sources of Productivity Change in Spanish Banking" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), European Journal
of Operational Research 98:2 (April 16, 1997), 364-80.
A DEA-Based Analysis of Productivity Change and Intertemporal Managerial Performance" (with
E. Grifell-Tatjé), Annals of Operations Research 73 (1997), 177-89.
Weather and Pollution Abatement Costs" (with J. Leightner), The Energy Journal 19:2 (1998),
“The Impact of Financial Liberalization on the Performance of Thai Banks” (with J. Leightner),
Journal of Economics and Business 50:2 (March/April 1998), 115-31. [Reprinted in M. J. B. Hall, ed., The Regulation and Supervision of Banks, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., (2000).]
The Impact of Regulation On Operating Cost and Substitution Possibilities" (with G. Granderson),
Southern Economic Journal 65:1 (July 1998), 83-97.
A Quasi-Malmquist Productivity Index" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé and J. T. Pastor), Journal of
Productivity Analysis 10:1 (July 1998), 7-20.
“The Impact of Mergers on Credit Union Service Provision” (with H. O. Fried and S. Yaisawarng),
Journal of Banking and Finance 23:2-4 (February 1999), 367-86.
“Econometric Estimation of Technical and Environmental Efficiency: An Application to Dutch Dairy
Farms” (with S. Reinhard and G. J. Thijssen), American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81:1
(February 1999), 44-60.
A Generalized Malmquist Productivity Index" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Top 7:1 (June 1999), 81-101.
“Profits and Productivity” (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Management Science 45:9 (September 1999), 1177-93.
“Radial DEA Models Without Inputs or Without Outputs” (with J. T. Pastor), European Journal of
Operational Research 118:1 (October 1, 1999), 46-51.
“Evaluating the Performance of Agricultural Bank Management: The Impact of State Regulatory
Policies” (with B. K. N. Armah, Jr. and T. A. Park), Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics
31:3 (December 1999), 437-48.
“Environmental Efficiency with Multiple Environmentally Detrimental Variables: Estimated with
SFA and DEA” (with S. Reinhard and G. J. Thijssen), European Journal of Operational Research 121:2
(March 2000), 287-303.
“Cost and Productivity” (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Managerial and Decision Economics 21:1
(January/February 2000), 19-30.
The Effects of Deregulation on the Performance of Financial Institutions: The Case of Spanish
Savings Banks" (with S. C. Kumbhakar, A. Lozano-Vivas and I. Hasan), Journal of Money, Credit
and Banking 33:1 (February 2001), 101-20.
“A Growth Maximizing Tax Structure for New Zealand” (with J. Branson), International Tax and
Public Finance 8:2 (March 2001), 129-46.
Graph Efficiency and Productivity Measures: An Application to U.S. Agriculture" (with J. L. Zofio),
Applied Economics 33 (2001), 1433-42.
“Accounting for Environmental Effects and Statistical Noise in Data Envelopment Analysis” (with
H.Fried, S. S. Schmidt and S. Yaisawarng), Journal of Productivity Analysis 17:1/2 (January 2002),
“Analysis of Environmental Efficiency Variation” (with S. Reinhard and G. Thijssen), American
Journal of Agricultural Economics 84:4 (November 2002), 1054-65.
The Managers versus the Consultants" (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Scandinavian Journal of Economics
105:1 (2003), 119-38.
Equivalent Standard DEA Models to Provide Super-Efficiency Scores" (with A. P. B. Rouse), Journal
of the Operational Research Society 54:1 (2003), 101-08.
“Efficiency and Productivity in the Public Sector: Dominant Themes in the Literature” (with M. A.
Muñiz Pérez), Papeles de Economia Española 95 (2003), 47-65.
The Decomposition of Malmquist Productivity Indexes," Journal of Productivity Analysis 20:3
(November 2003), 437-59.
“Excess Capacity and Expense Preference Behavior in National Health Systems: An Application to
the Spanish Public Hospitals” (with A. Rodriguez-Alvarez), Health Economics 13:2 (February 2004),
“World Health System Performance Revisited” (with D. B. Evans, J. A. Lauer and C. J. L. Murray),
BMC Health Services Research 4:19 (July 2004).
“Decomposing the Dividend” (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Journal of Comparative Economics 32:3
(September 2004), 500-18.
Allocative Inefficiency and its Cost: The Case of Spanish Public Hospitals" (with A. R. Alvarez and
V. F. Blanco), International Journal of Production Economics 92:2 (November 2004), 99-111.
Incorporating Environmental Impacts in the Measurement of Agricultural Productivity Growth" (with
V. E. Ball, H. Luu and R. Nehring), Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 29:3 (December
“A Global Malmquist Productivity Index” (with J. T. Pastor), Economics Letters 88:2 (August 2005),
“Frontier Analysis in Health Care,” International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management
7:1/2 (2006), 5-14.
“Equitable Resource Allocation and Operational Efficiency Evaluation” (with J. Gao and J. Campbell),
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management 7:1/2 (2006), 143-67.
“Evaluating the Financial Performance of Bank Branches” (with J. T. Pastor and H. Tulkens), Annals
of Operations Research 145:1 (July 2006), 321-37.
“One Market, One Number? A Composite Indicator Assessment of EU Internal Market Dynamics”
(with L. Cherchye, W. Moesen and T. Van Puyenbroeck), European Economic Review 51:3 (April
“Avoiding Unfeasibility in DEA Models with Weight Restrictions” (with M. P. E. Lins and A. C. M. da
Silva), European Journal of Operational Research 181:2 (September 2007), 956-66.
“Circularity of the Malmquist Productivity Index” (with J. T. Pastor), Economic Theory 33:3
(December 2007), 591-99.
“Short-run Total Cost Change and Productivity of U.S. Class I Railroads” (with S. H. Lim), Journal of
Transport Economics and Policy 42:1 (January 2008), 155-98.
“Productivity at the Post” (with E. Grifell-Tatjé), Journal of Regulatory Economics 33:2 (April 2008),
“The Effects of Stochastic Demand and Expense Preference Behaviour on Hospital Costs and
Excess Capacity” (with A. Rodríguez-Álvarez and Alan Wall), Health Economics 18:2 (February
“Environmental Efficiency Measurement with Translog Distance Functions: A Parametric Approach”
(with R. A. Cuesta and J. L. Zofio), Ecological Economics 68:8-9 (June 2009), 2232-42.
“Scale Economies and Inefficiency of U.S. Dairy Farms” (with R. Mosheim), American Journal of
Agricultural Economics 91:3 (August 2009), 777-94.
“Profit and Productivity of U.S. Class I Railroads” (with S. H. Lim), Managerial and Decision
Economics 30:7 (October 2009), 423-42.
“The Biennial Malmquist Productivity Index” (with M. Asmild and J. T. Pastor), Socio-Economic
Planning Sciences 45:1 (March 2011), 10-15.
“History Lessons” (with W. W. Cooper), Journal of Productivity Analysis 36:2 (October 2011), 193-
“Testing the Product Test” (with H. Brea and E. Grifell-Tatjé), Economics Letters 113:2 (November
“Families of Linear Efficiency Models Based on Debreu’s Loss Function” (with J. T. Pastor and J.
Aparicio), Journal of Productivity Analysis 38:2 (October 2012), 109-20.
“Productivity Decline in Australian Coal Mining” (with J. E. Lovell), Journal of Productivity Analysis
40:3 (December 2013), 443-55.
“Productivity, Price Recovery, Capacity Constraints and their Financial Consequences” (with E.
Grifell-Tatjé), Journal of Productivity Analysis 41:1 (February 2014), 3-17.
“A Framework for Guiding the Management of Urban Stream Health,” (with H. K. Millington and J. E. Lovell), Ecological Economics 109 (2015), 222-33.